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        Flag of Bermuda

(Pictures above are a bird's eye view of the Bermudan island, and a small depiction of the Bermuda flag)

Bermuda was formed about 100 million years ago by volcanic eruptions along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  Around this time, the Atlantic Ocean was a lot narrower so Bermuda was closer to Europe and Africa, but due to sea floor spreading and the widening of the Atlantic-Bermuda got shoved away from the Eastern hemisphere, all this time still managing to never move far from its position to the North American coast. The top of the volcanic seamount got eroded below sea level and then corals began to grow around the margins in the early Pleistocene, which takes us back to a look at the unconformities.  Today the volcanic rocks are now seen as basement rock for a limestone platform.  The limestone that formed atop originated as carbonate sand from the reefs that formed dunes, these got cemented together through the action of rain into rock.

More than 150 caves are found in Bermuda, and all are formed in this limestone cap rock.  These caves contain many stalactites, and stalagmites.  Although many of the entrances to the caves are inland, some caves extend down to sea level and contain pools of water.

Bermuda's longest cave is Green Bay Cave System and is completely submerged in water, this cave also contains about 2 km of explored passageways, while most other caves average in 18 meters of passageway.

Underwater caves that contain stalactites and stalagmites are proof of the idea that during the Ice Age, caves must have been dry for prolonged periods of time.

In Bermuda's anchaline caves comes new species that were previously unknown to man, and there are 75 aquatic cave adapted species that have been identified from caves including: 64 crustaceans, 5 mites, 2 ciliates, 2 gastropod molluscs, and 2 segmented worms.




(Picture showing where on the maps that Bermuda is located, and a better view of the Bermudan island by itself.)